Genetic Counselor Career Guide 2024

Table of Contents

Genetic Counselor Salary in United States for 2023

Average Annual Salary: $89,990 Hourly Rate: $43.26

Data sourced from the U.S. Department of Labor via the ONET Web API. Updated at December 8, 2023

Best College Majors for Genetic Counselors in 2023

Projected Job Employment for Genetic Counselor:

Estimated YearProjected YearEstimated EmploymentProjected Employment% ChangeProjected Annual Job Opening

Genetic Counselor Career Path Overview

The journey to becoming a genetic counselor involves a combination of academic preparation, certification, and continuous learning. As an expert in genetics, a genetic counselor helps individuals and families understand and adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease. This career path is a perfect blend of science and compassion, ideal for those who have a passion for helping others and a keen interest in genetics.

Academic Preparation

The first step towards becoming a genetic counselor is obtaining a Bachelor’s degree in a relevant field such as biology, genetics, psychology, or nursing. This serves as the groundwork for the more specialized education to follow. Following undergraduate studies, prospective genetic counselors must complete a Master’s degree in Genetic Counseling. These programs are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Genetic Counseling (ACGC), ensuring they meet the necessary educational standards. The curriculum typically includes coursework in molecular genetics, human development, ethics, research methods, and counseling theory and techniques.


After completing their Master’s degree, aspiring genetic counselors must pass the American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) certification exam. This exam assesses their understanding of genetic diseases, counseling techniques, and ethical considerations. Passing this exam designates an individual as a Certified Genetic Counselor (CGC), demonstrating their competency and commitment to the profession.

Career Growth

Once certified, genetic counselors can begin practicing. They often work in hospitals, laboratories, or private clinics. Some choose to specialize in areas like prenatal genetics, cancer genetics, or cardiovascular genetics. Experienced genetic counselors may advance into leadership roles such as managing or directing a genetic counseling department or program. Others may choose to contribute to the field through research or teaching.

Continuous Learning

The field of genetics is constantly evolving. To stay current, genetic counselors are required to participate in continuing education. This can be achieved through attending conferences, participating in webinars, or completing additional coursework. This ongoing learning not only maintains their certification but also ensures they can provide the most up-to-date and accurate information to their clients. In summary, the career path to becoming a genetic counselor is a rewarding one that requires a strong educational foundation, rigorous certification, and a commitment to lifelong learning. It offers the opportunity to make a significant impact on individuals’ lives by helping them understand and navigate their genetic health.

Genetic Counselor Career Path Education and Training

To embark on a rewarding career as a Genetic Counselor, it is essential to acquire the right blend of education and training. This involves not only a rigorous academic foundation but also hands-on experience in the field. In this section, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the educational requirements and practical training necessary to become a successful Genetic Counselor.

Undergraduate Education

The journey to becoming a Genetic Counselor typically begins with an undergraduate degree in a life science discipline. Most prospective Genetic Counselors major in fields like Biology, Genetics, Biochemistry, or Psychology. These programs provide a solid foundation in the basic sciences and introduce students to the principles of human genetics and genomics.

Master's Degree in Genetic Counseling

After completing an undergraduate degree, aspiring Genetic Counselors must attain a Master's degree in Genetic Counseling or a related field from a program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Genetic Counseling (ACGC). These programs usually take two years to complete and offer an in-depth study of genetics, genomics, public health, epidemiology, biostatistics, and counseling. The curriculum also includes classes on medical genetics and genetic diseases, genetic testing and interpretation, psychosocial counseling, ethical and legal issues in genetics, research methods, and multicultural competence in genetic counseling.

Clinical Training

Practical experience is an integral part of a Genetic Counselor's education. Most master's programs in genetic counseling incorporate extensive clinical rotations or internships that allow students to gain firsthand experience under the supervision of certified Genetic Counselors. This enables students to apply their theoretical knowledge to real-life situations, develop their counseling skills, and learn about different specialties within genetic counseling.

Board Certification

Upon completion of the master's degree, graduates are eligible to sit for the American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) certification exam. This certification is a mark of excellence and professional competence in the field of genetic counseling. It signifies that a Genetic Counselor has met the high standards of knowledge and skills set by the ABGC, and maintains their competency through ongoing continuing education.

Continuing Education

The field of genetics is constantly evolving, making it necessary for Genetic Counselors to stay current with the latest developments. This can be achieved through continuing education opportunities such as workshops, seminars, online courses, and professional conferences. Many employers and certification bodies require Genetic Counselors to complete a certain number of continuing education units (CEUs) every few years to maintain their credentials. By following this career path education and training, you will be well-equipped to provide patients with the necessary genetic information and support, helping them make informed decisions about their health and well-being.

Genetic Counselor Career Path Progression

If you're considering a career as a Genetic Counselor, it's crucial to understand the path progression, which involves numerous stages of education, certification, and experience. This rewarding career can be extremely fulfilling for those with an interest in genetics, healthcare, and helping others make informed decisions about their health.

Undergraduate Studies

The first step on the Genetic Counselor career path is to obtain a bachelor's degree. Most professionals in this field hold degrees in biology, genetics, nursing, psychology, or a related field. During this time, students typically take courses in biology, chemistry, genetics, psychology, and statistics.

Graduate Studies

After obtaining a bachelor's degree, aspiring Genetic Counselors usually pursue a Master's Degree in Genetic Counseling or a related field. These programs are typically two years long and include both classroom instruction and clinical experience. Coursework often covers topics like medical genetics, population genetics, genetic counseling techniques, and bioethics.


Once you have completed your master's degree, you will need to become certified before you can practice as a Genetic Counselor. In the United States, certification is granted by the American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC). To obtain this certification, you must pass the ABGC Certification Examination.

Entry-Level Position

After earning your certification, you can start seeking entry-level positions as a Genetic Counselor. These positions are often found in hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other healthcare facilities. As an entry-level Genetic Counselor, you'll work under the supervision of experienced professionals while gaining practical experience.

Advanced Positions

With experience and continuing education, Genetic Counselors can move into more advanced positions. These might include roles as senior or lead Genetic Counselors, where you'll have more responsibilities and may supervise other counselors. Some Genetic Counselors also choose to specialize in a specific area of genetics, such as prenatal genetics, cancer genetics, or pediatric genetics.

Leadership Roles

Genetic Counselors who have gained significant experience and expertise may eventually move into leadership roles. These roles might include managing a team of Genetic Counselors, directing a genetic counseling program, or working in policy development or education. In these positions, Genetic Counselors can influence the direction of the profession and contribute to advancements in the field.

Continuing Education

Even after reaching advanced positions, Genetic Counselors should continue their education. The field of genetics is always evolving, so professionals must stay up-to-date with the latest research and developments. Continuing education can also open up new career opportunities and specializations. The Genetic Counselor career path is one of lifelong learning and progression. From undergraduate studies to advanced leadership roles, each step brings new challenges and opportunities to make a difference in patients' lives.

Genetic Counselor Career Path Specializations and Subfields

In the dynamic field of genetic counseling, professionals have the opportunity to specialize in various subfields. These specializations not only allow genetic counselors to focus on areas of personal interest but also expand their career opportunities. Here are some of the key specializations and subfields within the genetic counselor career path.

Prenatal Genetic Counseling

Prenatal genetic counselors work with parents-to-be or those planning to start a family. They provide information and support concerning inherited disorders and conditions that could potentially affect the unborn child. These professionals interpret family and medical histories to assess the risk of birth defects or genetic disorders, explain testing options, and help parents understand and make decisions about what the test results mean.

Cancer Genetic Counseling

Cancer genetic counselors specialize in assessing individuals' risk of developing hereditary cancer. Through detailed analysis of patients' family history and possible genetic testing, these professionals identify those at higher risk, provide information about screening procedures and prevention strategies, and help patients navigate their options.

Cardiovascular Genetic Counseling

Some genetic counselors specialize in cardiovascular health, working with patients who have a family history of heart disease or other cardiovascular conditions. They offer guidance on genetic testing options, interpret results, and help patients understand their risks and treatment options.

Pediatric Genetic Counseling

Pediatric genetic counselors work with families whose children are affected by or at risk for genetic conditions. They help families understand the nature of these conditions, potential treatments, and how they might impact the child's life. They also support families as they make critical decisions about their child's healthcare.

Neurogenetics Counseling

In neurogenetics counseling, professionals work with patients dealing with neurological disorders that have a genetic component. Such conditions may include Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and certain forms of epilepsy. Neurogenetics counselors help patients understand their condition, the risk of passing it to future generations, and potential treatment options.

Psychiatric Genetic Counseling

The field of psychiatric genetic counseling is a relatively new area of specialization. Counselors in this subfield work with individuals and families affected by psychiatric disorders with a known or suspected genetic component, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. They provide information about the genetic aspects of these conditions and support individuals and families as they cope with these challenges. Each of these specializations within the genetic counselor career path offers unique opportunities to make a significant impact on patients' lives. As our understanding of genetics continues to evolve, the role of the genetic counselor will continue to expand, offering even more possibilities for specialization.

Genetic Counselor Career Path Job Market and Outlook

The job market for Genetic Counselors is booming, with an unprecedented surge in demand. The advent of personalized medicine, advancements in genomics, and a heightened awareness of genetic disorders have all contributed to the increased need for professionals in this field. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the employment of Genetic Counselors is expected to grow 21% from 2019 to 2029, much faster than the average for all occupations. This rapid growth is fueled by ongoing research and advancements in genetics that are constantly broadening the scope of genetic testing and counseling. Moreover, as technology continues to evolve, new areas of specialization are emerging within the field, offering a wide array of career opportunities for Genetic Counselors. These include prenatal and reproductive genetics, cancer genetics, cardiovascular genetics, neurogenetics, and more.

Demand for Genetic Counselors

The demand for Genetic Counselors is driven by an increased recognition of the importance of genetics in diagnosing and treating diseases. As more people become aware of their genetic risk factors for various conditions, they seek guidance from professionals who can interpret complex genetic information. In addition, healthcare providers are increasingly using genetic information to tailor treatment plans for their patients. This approach, known as precision medicine or personalized medicine, relies heavily on the expertise of Genetic Counselors.

Educational Requirements and Skills

To become a Genetic Counselor, you'll need a Master’s degree in Genetic Counseling or Genetics from a program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Genetic Counseling (ACGC). These programs typically include courses in molecular genetics, genetic counseling, and biomedical ethics. In addition to formal education, Genetic Counselors also need strong interpersonal skills as they work closely with patients and their families. They must be able to explain complex genetic concepts in a way that patients can understand, and they need to be empathetic, as many of their patients may be dealing with difficult diagnoses.

Certification and Licensing

After completing their education, Genetic Counselors typically need to become certified. The American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) offers the Certified Genetic Counselor (CGC) credential. To obtain this certification, individuals must pass an examination that covers all aspects of genetic counseling. Many states also require Genetic Counselors to be licensed. The specific requirements for licensure vary by state, but they often include passing an examination and completing a certain amount of supervised clinical experience.

Career Advancement Opportunities

With experience, Genetic Counselors may advance to senior roles within a hospital or clinic, such as department head or director of genetic counseling services. Some Genetic Counselors also choose to pursue research or teaching positions at universities. Others may decide to specialize in a specific area of genetics, such as cancer genetics or prenatal genetics, which can also open up new career opportunities.

Genetic Counselor Career Path Salary and Compensation

As a genetic counselor, your salary and compensation will be largely influenced by a variety of factors, including your level of experience, your location, and the specific industry in which you work. To start with, let's discuss the entry-level salary for genetic counselors. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual wage for genetic counselors was $81,880 in May 2020. However, those just starting out in their careers can expect to earn a bit less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $61,130, which is generally reflective of entry-level positions. As you gain more experience and specialize in your field, your earning potential increases. For instance, genetic counselors with several years of experience or those who have developed a niche expertise in areas like prenatal genetics or cancer genetics often earn higher salaries. In addition to your base salary, it's also important to consider other forms of compensation that might be available to you. Many employers offer comprehensive benefits packages that include health insurance, retirement plans, paid time off, and professional development opportunities. Some employers may also offer bonuses or profit-sharing opportunities. Your geographical location can also significantly impact your earnings as a genetic counselor. For example, states like California and New York tend to have higher average salaries for this profession due to the high cost of living and the presence of large healthcare systems. Lastly, the industry in which you work can affect your salary. Genetic counselors employed in hospitals and physicians' offices typically earn higher salaries than those working in laboratories or educational institutions. In summary, while the specific salary and compensation can vary greatly depending on a variety of factors, genetic counseling remains a rewarding career path both financially and personally. The opportunity to guide individuals and families through complex genetic information while contributing to advancements in healthcare is truly priceless.

Genetic Counselor Career Path Tips for Success

To achieve success as a Genetic Counselor, it's essential to make strategic choices throughout your educational journey and professional career. This entails acquiring the right knowledge, honing your skills, gaining relevant experience, and continually updating your expertise to keep up with advancements in the field. Here are some tips for success on your Genetic Counselor career path.

Acquiring the Right Education

The first step towards becoming a Genetic Counselor is earning a Bachelor’s degree in a related field. While there's no specific undergraduate degree required, coursework in biology, genetics, psychology, and counseling can be beneficial. After obtaining your Bachelor’s degree, you'll need to pursue a Master’s degree in Genetic Counseling or a related field from a program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Genetic Counseling (ACGC).

Gaining Relevant Experience

Hands-on experience is invaluable in this field. During your Master's program, you'll likely complete clinical rotations or internships which provide practical experience. After graduation, consider seeking employment in a variety of settings such as hospitals, clinics, research institutions or genetic testing companies to broaden your expertise and skills.

Obtaining Certification

After completing your Master's degree, you'll be eligible to sit for the American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) certification exam. This certification demonstrates that you have met the standards set by the profession and are fully qualified to practice as a Genetic Counselor. Maintaining your certification requires ongoing professional development.

Continuing Education and Professional Development

The field of genetics is constantly evolving; thus, staying updated with new findings, technologies, and ethical issues is crucial. This can be achieved through continuing education courses, attending seminars and conferences, reading scientific journals, or pursuing further studies such as a PhD in genetics or a related field.

Networking and Professional Affiliations

Building professional relationships can lead to job opportunities and collaborations. Joining professional organizations like the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) can provide networking opportunities, access to resources and updates on advancements in the field.

Developing Soft Skills

As a Genetic Counselor, you'll not only need technical knowledge but also soft skills like empathy, communication, problem-solving, and patience. These skills are vital for effectively counseling patients and families, explaining complex genetic concepts, and making informed decisions about genetic testing and treatment options.


Once you've gained experience as a Genetic Counselor, you may decide to specialize in a particular area such as prenatal genetics, cancer genetics, pediatric genetics, or neurogenetics. Specialization can enhance your expertise and make you more attractive to employers. By following these tips for success, you can effectively navigate your Genetic Counselor career path and make significant contributions to this important field.

What is a Genetic Counselor?

A genetic counselor is a healthcare professional who has specialized education in genetics and counseling to provide personalized help patients may need as they make decisions about their genetic health. They often work with individuals or families who are at risk for, or diagnosed with a variety of inherited conditions. They identify risks, explain testing options and possible outcomes, and support patients as they cope with their results.

What Does a Genetic Counselor Do?

Genetic counselors interpret genetic testing results and communicate information about risk factors to patients. They also discuss testing options and prevention strategies. They may specialize in areas such as prenatal care, pediatrics, oncology, or neurology. Genetic counselors often work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, laboratories, clinics, and research institutions.

What Education is Needed to Become a Genetic Counselor?

To become a genetic counselor, one needs to complete a Bachelor's degree in biology, genetics, psychology, or a related field. Then, they need to earn a Master's degree in Genetic Counseling from an accredited program. Some states also require licensure, which usually involves passing an exam administered by the American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC).

What Skills are Needed to Become a Genetic Counselor?

In addition to scientific knowledge, genetic counselors need strong interpersonal skills as their role often involves providing emotional support to patients facing potential health issues. They also need excellent communication skills to explain complex genetic information clearly to patients. Problem-solving skills are essential too, as genetic counselors must analyze patients' genetic test results and medical histories to provide appropriate advice.

What is the Job Outlook for Genetic Counselors?

The job outlook for genetic counselors is quite positive. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment for genetic counselors is projected to grow 21 percent from 2019 to 2029, much faster than the average for all occupations. This growth is largely due to the increased availability of genetic testing and the ongoing discovery of how genetics plays a role in disease risk.

What are the Pros and Cons of a Career as a Genetic Counselor?

The pros of a career as a genetic counselor include the ability to help patients make informed decisions about their health, the chance to work in a rapidly advancing field, and often, the flexibility to work in various settings. However, the job can also be emotionally challenging as counselors often work with patients facing serious health issues. Also, the field requires constant learning due to ongoing advancements in genetics.

How Much Do Genetic Counselors Make?

The median annual wage for genetic counselors was $81,880 in May 2019, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. However, salaries can vary widely depending on location, experience, specialty, and workplace setting.

What are Some Similar Careers to Genetic Counseling?

Similar careers to genetic counseling include other healthcare roles that require specialized scientific knowledge and strong interpersonal skills. These may include medical scientists, health educators, registered nurses, social workers, and psychologists. Other similar roles could be found in the field of genetics, such as geneticists or genetic researchers.